Selenium Interview Questions

Prepare for your next job interview with these commonly asked Selenium questions and answers to boost your confidence and land that dream automation testing role.

1. What is Selenium?

Selenium is a powerful open-source framework for automating web browsers. It provides a way for testing web applications across different browsers and platforms.

2. Explain the different components of Selenium.

Selenium consists of WebDriver, Selenium Grid, and Selenium IDE. WebDriver is used for browser automation, Selenium Grid for parallel test execution, and Selenium IDE for record and playback of test scripts.

3. What are the disadvantages of using Selenium as a testing tool?

The following are the disadvantages of using Selenium as a testing tool:

  • Tests web applications only: Selenium supports the testing of only web-based applications. Mobile applications, Captcha, and Barcode readers cannot be tested using Selenium unless integrated with third-party tools like Appium and TestNG.
  • No built-in reporting and test management facility: Selenium can generate reports only using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit.
  • Unavailability of reliable tech support: Since Selenium is an open-source tool, no dedicated support for user issues is available.
  • May require the knowledge of programming languages: Some prior programming knowledge is required to use Selenium.

4. Why should Selenium be selected as a testing tool for web applications or systems?

Selenium provides the following advantages, which make it an excellent automated testing framework:

  • It is free and open-source software with a large user base and supports providing community.
  • It has cross-browser compatibility and supports multiple browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Edge, Opera, Safari, etc.
  • It supports multiple operating systems such as Windows, Linux, macOS, etc.
  • It facilitates the usage of multiple programming languages including Scala, Ruby, Python, PHP, Perl, Java, Groovy, C#, etc.
  • It provides support for distributed testing as well.

5. What is meant by a locator and name a few different types of locators present in Selenium.

A locator is an address for uniquely identifying web elements within a web page. There are different types of locators present in Selenium to identify web elements uniquely and accurately like:

  • ID
  • ClassName
  • Name
  • TagName
  • LinkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath
  • CSS Selector
  • DOM.

6. What is exception test in Selenium?

An exception test is a test that expects an exception to be thrown inside a test class. It expects a @Test annotation followed by the expected exception name in the brackets.

Eg: @Test(expectedException = NoSuchElementException.class) is an exception test for missing elements in Selenium.

7. What is XPath in Selenium? Explain XPath Absolute and XPath Relative.

XPath, also defined as XML-Path (Extensible Markup Language Path), is a language used to query XML documents and provide functionalities like locating elements in Selenium by iterating through each element in a webpage. In XPath, data is stored in a key-value pair format similar to an HTML tag. It uses a single slash, i.e. ‘ / ’ for creating an absolute path, and a double slash, i.e. ‘ // ’ for creating a relative path for an element to be located on a webpage.

8. In Xpath, what is the difference between "/" and "//"?

  • Single Slash "/" - A single slash is used to create an Xpath with an absolute path, i.e., the XPath will begin with the document node/start node. For example, 
Absolute XPath: /html/body/div/div/form/input

Here, /html is the root html node.

  • Double Slash "//" - The double slash is used to construct an Xpath with a relative path, which means the XPath can start selection from anywhere on the page. For example,
Relative XPath: //input[@id = 'email']

Here, we can locate an input having id = ‘email’ present anywhere in the document object model (DOM).

9. What is the difference between the commands "type" and "typeAndWait" in the context of Selenium?

The "type" command is used to enter keyboard key values into a software web application's text box. It can also be used to choose values from a combo box, whereas the "typeAndWait" command is used when you finish typing and the software web page begins to reload. This command will wait for the page of the software program to reload before proceeding. You must use a basic "type" command if there is no page reload event when typing.

10. In Selenium, how will you wait until a web page has been loaded completely?

There are two methods of making sure that the web page has been loaded completely in Selenium. 

They are as follows:

1. Immediately after creating the webdriver instance, set an implicit wait: 

temp = driver.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitWait;

On every page navigation or reload, this will try to wait until the page is fully loaded.

2. Call JavaScript return document.readyState till "complete" is returned after page navigation. As a JavaScript executor, the web driver instance can be used. 

Code example:

new WebDriverWait(firefoxDriver, pageLoadTimeout).until(     webDriver -> ((JavascriptExecutor) webDriver).executeScript("return document.readyState").equals("complete"));

11. What is Selenium WebDriver?

Selenium WebDriver, also known as Selenium 2, is a browser automation framework that accepts and sends commands to a browser to implement it. It has direct control over the browser because it communicates with it directly. Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, and Ruby are all supported by Selenium WebDriver.

12. Is Selenium WebDriver a library?

Selenium WebDriver is a prominent free open-source library for automating browsers and testing web applications.

13. Is Selenium WebDriver an interface or a class?

Selenium WebDriver is usually a set of methods defined by an interface. The browser-specific classes, on the other hand, provide an implementation of it by extending a class. AndroidDriver, ChromeDriver, FirefoxDriver, InternetExplorerDriver, SafariDriver, and others are some of the implementation classes.

14. What are the different types of WebDriver Application Programming Interfaces in Selenium?

The Various Types of WebDriver APIs in Selenium are as follows:

  • Opera Driver
  • InternetExplorer Driver
  • Chrome Driver
  • Safari Driver
  • Android Driver
  • Firefox Driver
  • Gecko Driver
  • iPhone Driver
  • EventFiringWebDriver
  • HTMLUnit Driver.

15. What programming languages does Selenium WebDiver support?

The various programming languages that Selenium WebDriver supports are as follows:

  • Java
  • C#
  • Python
  • Ruby
  • Perl
  • PHP

16. What open-source frameworks does Selenium WebDriver support?

The following are the open-source frameworks supported by the Selenium WebDriver:

  • TestNG:
    • Cédric Beust designed TestNG, a testing framework for the Java programming language that was influenced by JUnit and NUnit.
    • TestNG was created with the purpose of covering a wider range of test categories, including unit, functional, end-to-end, integration, and so on, with more robust and user-friendly functions.
  • JUnit:
    • It is used for Unit Testing of various types of applications.

17. What is WebDriver's super interface?

SearchContext is the Super Interface of the WebDriver.

18. Explain the following line of code.

Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 

 'WebDriver' is an interface, and we are generating a WebDriver object by instantiating a FirefoxDriver object (This object uses Firefox Driver to link the test cases with the Firefox browser).

19. Is it necessary to use Selenium Server to run Selenium WebDriver scripts?

Selenium Server is required when distributing Selenium WebDriver scripts for execution with Selenium Grid. Selenium Grid is a Selenium functionality that allows you to execute test cases on multiple machines on various platforms. You wish to execute your test cases on a remote machine because your local machine is running numerous applications. You will need to set up the remote server so that the test cases can run on it.

20. What is an alternative option to driver.get() method to open an URL in Selenium Web Driver?

driver.navigate() can be used instead. It is used for navigating forwards and backwards in a browser.

21. What is the difference between driver.get() and“url”)?

The difference between the two is as follows:

  • driver.get(): To open a URL and have it wait for the entire page to load.
  • To navigate to a URL without having to wait for the entire page to load.

22. What are the differences between the methods driver.close() and driver.quit()?

The functions of these two methods (driver.close and driver.quit) are nearly identical. Although both allow us to close a browser, there is a distinction.

  • To close the current WebDriver instance, use driver.close().
  • To close all open WebDriver instances, use driver.quit().

23. What are some cases that Selenium WebDriver cannot automate?

Some of the scenarios which we cannot automate are as follows:

  • Selenium WebDriver does not support bitmap comparison.
  • Using Selenium WebDriver to automate Captcha is not possible.
  • Using Selenium WebDriver, we are unable to read bar codes.
  • Video streaming scenarios: Selenium will almost never be able to recognise video controllers. To some extent, JavaScript Executor and flex UI selenium will work, although they are not completely dependable.
  • Performance testing can be automated, however, it's preferable to avoid using Selenium for performance testing.

24. In Selenium WebDriver, what is an Object Repository?

Instead of hard-coding element locator data in the scripts, the Object Repository is used to store the element locator data in a centralized location. To store all of the element locators, we create a property file (.properties), which acts as an object repository in Selenium WebDriver.

25. State the major difference between “assert” and “verify” commands in Selenium.

Both “assert” and “verify” commands check whether the given condition is true or false and the only difference between them is that:

  • Assert: Assert condition stops the execution of the testing if the given condition is false else would continue with the further tests.
  • Verify: Verify the condition doesn’t stop the flow of execution irrespective of the condition being true or false.

26. With the help of code snippets, explain how we can create right-click and mouse hover actions in Selenium.

The following code can replicate right-click action:

actions action = newActions(driver);WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId")); action.contextClick(element).perform();

The following code can replicate the mouse hover action:

actions action = newActions(driver);WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));action.moveToElement(element).perform();

27. Can we handle a windows-based pop-up in Selenium, and if not, then what are the alternatives?

No, Selenium doesn’t support windows-based pop-ups as it’s an automated testing tool built for web application-based testing. However, with the support of third-party tools like AutoIT, Robot class, etc., windows-based pop-ups can be handled in selenium.

28. What do you understand about the Page Object Model in the context of Selenium? What are its advantages?

Page Object Model (POM) is a design pattern that generates an Object Repository for web UI elements and is widely used in test automation. The paradigm has the advantage of reducing code duplication and improving test maintenance. According to this paradigm, each web page in the application should have its own Page Class. This Page class will identify the web page's WebElements and also has Page methods that operate on those WebElements. The names of these methods should correspond to the tasks they perform, for example, if a loader is waiting for the payment gateway to appear, the POM method name could be waitForPaymentScreenDisplay().

The following are the advantages of the Page Object Model (POM) :

  • According to the Page Object Design Pattern, user interface activities and flows should be separated from verification. Our code is clearer and easier to understand as a result of this notion.
  • The second advantage is that the object repository is independent of test cases, allowing us to reuse the same object repository with different tools. For example, we can use Selenium to combine Page Object Model with TestNG/JUnit for functional testing and JBehave/Cucumber for acceptability testing.
  • Because of the reusable page methods in the POM classes, code gets less and more efficient.
  • Methods are given more realistic names that can be easily associated with the UI operation. If we land on the home page after clicking the button, the function name will be 'gotoHomePage()'.

29. How to create an Object Repository in your project?

There is an Object Repository notion in QTP (Quick Test Professional). By default, when a user records a test, the objects and their properties are saved in an Object Repository. This Object Repository is used by QTP to playback scripts. There is no default Object Repository concept in Selenium. This isn't to say that Selenium doesn't have an Object Repository. Even if there isn't one by default, we could make our own. 

Objects are referred to as locators in Selenium (such as ID, Name, Class Name, Tag Name, Link Text, Partial Link Text, XPath, and CSS). A collection of objects is referred to as an object repository. Placing all the locators in a separate file is one technique to construct an Object Repository (i.e., properties file). The ideal method, however, is to use Page Object Model. Each web page is represented as a class in the Page Object Model Design Pattern. A class contains all of the items associated with a specific page of a web application.

30. Mention the several types of navigation commands that can be used?

The several types of navigation commands that can be used are as follows:

  • navigate().to() - It is used for going to the specified URL.
  • driver.navigate().refresh() - The current page is refreshed using the driver.navigate().refresh() command.
  • driver.navigate().forward() - This command does the same function as clicking the browser's Forward Button. Nothing is accepted or returned by it.
  • driver.navigate()back() - This command does the same function as clicking the browser's Back Button. Nothing is accepted or returned by it.

31. What are Selenium WebDriver Listeners?

Selenium WebDriver Listeners, as the name implies, "listen" to any event that the Selenium code specifies. Listeners are useful when you want to know what happens before you click any element, before and after you navigate to an element, or when an exception is thrown and the test fails. Listeners can be used in Selenium Automation Testing to log the order of activities and to capture a screenshot whenever an Exception is thrown. This makes debugging easier in the later stages of Test Execution. Some examples of Listeners are Web Driver Event Listeners and TestNG.

32. What is the implementation of WebDriver Listeners?

The Webdriver Event Listeners can be implemented in one of two ways:

  • WebDriverEventListener is an interface with several built-in methods for tracking Webdriver events. It necessitates the implementation of ALL of the methods described in the Interface.
  • The AbstractWebDriverEventListener class gives us the ability to implement only the methods that we're interested in.

33. In Selenium WebDriver, how do you handle Ajax calls?

When using Selenium WebDriver, one of the most prevalent challenges is handling AJAX calls. We would have no way of knowing when the AJAX call would complete, and the page would be refreshed. In this tutorial, we'll look at how to use Selenium to handle AJAX calls. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX allows a web page to obtain little quantities of data from the server without having to completely reload the page. Without reloading the page, AJAX sends HTTP requests from the client to the server and then processes the server's answer. Wait commands may not work with AJAX controls. It's only that the page itself is not going to refresh.

The essential information may show on the web page without refreshing the browser when you click on a submit button. It may load in a fraction of a second, or it may take longer. We have no control over how long it takes for pages to load. In Selenium, the easiest way to deal with circumstances like this is to employ dynamic waits (i.e., WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition)
The following are some of the approaches that are available:

1. titleIs() – The anticipated condition looks for a specific title on a page.

wait.until(ExpectedConditions.titleIs("Big Sale of the Year"));

2. elementToBeClickable() – The desired condition requires that an element be clickable, which means that it must be present/displayed/visible on the screen and enabled.


3. alertIsPresent() – The expected condition anticipates the appearance of an alert box.


4. textToBePresentInElement() – The anticipated condition looks for a string pattern in an element.

wait.until(ExpectedConditions.textToBePresentInElement("text"),"text to be found");

34. Which implementation of WebDriver promises to be the fastest?

HTMLUnitDriver is the quickest WebDriver implementation because the HTMLUnitDriver does not run tests in the browser, this is the case. When compared to running the scripts without a browser, starting a browser and performing test cases took longer. For test case execution, HTMLUnitDriver used a simple HTTP request-response method.

35. At a bare minimum, how many parameters do selenium commands have?

The following four parameters need to be passed in Selenium:

1. Host: This is the parameter that binds Selenium to a particular IP address. Because we usually perform Selenium tests on our local system, the value will be 'localhost.' Instead of localhost, you can specify an IP address. 

The Syntax is as follows:

java -jar <selenium server standalone jar name> -host <Your IP Address>

2. Port number: TCP/IP port for connecting Selenium tests to the Selenium Grid Hub. 4444 is the default port hub. 

The Syntax is as follows:

java -jar <selenium server standalone jar name> -role hub -port 4444

Assure this port isn't being used by any other software on your machine. An exception like Exception in thread "main" may occur. Selenium is already running on port 4444. BindException: Selenium is already running on port 4444. Alternatively, some other service is available.

If this happens, you may either kill the other process using port 4444 or tell Selenium-Grid to use a new port for its hub. If you want to change the hub's port, the -port option can be used.

3. Browser: For the execution of the selenium scripts I required a browser to be passed.

4. Url: The URL of the application needs to be passed.

36. As seen below, we establish a WebDriver reference variable called 'driver.' What exactly is the purpose of proceeding in this manner?

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

instead of creating

FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

We may use the same driver variable to work with any browser we want, such as IEDriver, SafariDriver, and so on if we construct a reference variable of type WebDriver.

37. What kinds of Selenium WebDriver exceptions have you run into?

In the following project the exceptions we've run into are as follows:

  • Element Not Visible Exception: This error is produced when you try to discover a certain element on a webpage that is not currently accessible, despite the fact that it exists in the DOM. Also, if you're trying to find an element with an XPath that connects two or more elements, it can be difficult.
  • Stale Element Reference Exception: This is thrown in one of two scenarios, the first of which is more prevalent:
    • The element has been completely removed.
    • The element has been detached from the DOM.

On the elements, with which we are interacting, destruction and then restoration, we get a stale element reference exception. When this happens, the element's DOM reference becomes invalid. Because of this, we are unable to obtain the element's reference.

The following are some more common exceptions:

  • WebDriverException
  • TimeoutException
  • NoAlertPresentException
  • NoSuchWindowException
  • IllegalStateException
  • NoSuchElementException.

38. What is the best way to deal with StaleElementReferenceException?

Before we look at how to manage a StaleElementReferenceException using the Page Object Model, let's have a look at how to handle a StaleElementReferenceException.

First, let's define Stale Element Reference Exception. Stale refers to something that is old, deteriorated, and no longer fresh. An old or no longer available element is referred to as a stale element. Assume there is a WebElement in WebDriver that is discovered on a web page. The WebElement becomes stale when the DOM changes. The StaleElementReferenceException is thrown when we try to interact with a stale element.

39. In Selenium WebDriver, how do you take a screenshot?

During the execution of the test scripts, test cases may fail. We just capture a screenshot and save it in a result repository while manually executing the test cases. Selenium WebDriver can be used to accomplish the same thing. Some of the instances in which we might need to use Selenium WebDriver to capture a screenshot are as follows:

  • Problems with applications
  • Assertion Defect
  • Finding Web Elements on the web page is difficult.
  • Take a break to look for Webelements on the page.

TakesScreenshot is a Selenium interface that has a function getScreenShotAs that may be used to take a screenshot of the programme under test. When capturing screenshots with Selenium 3, we may run into a few difficulties. We utilize the aShot() function to get around this.

40. How do I retrieve the value of an attribute in Selenium WebDriver?

Using the getAttribute(value) method. It returns the value of the parameterized attribute.


<input name="nameSeleniumWebDriver" value="valueSeleniumWebDriver">Interview Bit</input>

Selenium Program:

String attributeValue = driver.findElement("nameSeleniumWebDriver")).getAttribute("value");System.out.println("Available attribute value is :"+attributeValue);



42. How do I use Selenium WebDriver for submitting a form?

For submitting a form in Selenium WebDriver, we use the "submit" method on the element.


43. In Selenium WebDriver, how do I push the ENTER key on a text box?

To utilize Selenium WebDriver to hit the ENTER key, we must use Selenium Enum Keys with the constant ENTER.


44. How can I use WebDriver to mouse hover over a web element?

We can use the Actions class to mouse hover over a web element as shown below in the code snippet:

WebElement ele = driver.findElement(By.xpath("xpath"));//Create object 'action' of an Actions classActions action = new Actions(driver);//Mouseover on an elementaction.moveToElement(ele).perform();

45. In Selenium WebDriver, how do you use the Recovery Scenario?

Within Selenium WebDriver Java tests, by using "Try Catch Block."

try {    driver.get("");}catch(Exception e){    System.out.println(e.getMessage());}

46. Why is it important to use TestNG when working with Selenium RC?

TestNG is a testing framework that provides more powerful and flexible test configuration and execution than JUnit, the default testing framework used with Selenium RC. TestNG allows for the annotation of test methods, support for data-driven testing, and the ability to run tests in parallel, which can lead to faster test execution and better test organization. Additionally, TestNG provides more advanced reporting and logging capabilities than JUnit. Using TestNG with Selenium RC can help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of automating web application testing.

47. Can Selenium be used to test responsive web design?

Yes, Selenium can be used to test responsive web design. Selenium is a web automation tool that allows for the automation of browser interactions, and as such, it can be used to test the responsiveness of a web page by simulating interactions on different screen sizes and resolutions. This can include testing how the page layout adjusts to different viewport sizes, testing how the page elements are displayed on different devices, and testing how the page behaves when a user switches between landscape and portrait orientations.

One way to test responsive web design with Selenium is by using the Selenium WebDriver API to set the browser's viewport size and then test the page's layout and functionality. Another way is to use a third-party library such as Selenium-Responsive-Testing which allows you to test how the page behaves on different devices and screen sizes.

It is worth noting that Selenium alone is not enough for responsive web design testing, it should be combined with other methods such as manual testing, visual testing, and using responsive design testing tools to get complete coverage.

48. What API should be used to test databases when using Selenium WebDriver for database testing?

Selenium WebDriver is a tool for automating web browsers, it's not designed for database testing. To test databases, you need a database testing tool that can connect to the database and perform various operations like running SQL queries and asserting the results. Some examples of database testing tools are DBUnit, jOOQ, and JDBC. These tools provide an API that can be used to connect to the database, perform operations and assert the results.

49. What are assertions in Selenium?

In the context of Selenium, assertions are used to check if the actual outcome of a test matches the expected outcome. Assertions are used to validate that a certain condition is true and if it's not true, the test execution will be stopped and an assertion error will be thrown. Assertions can be used to verify that a specific element is present on the page, to check the text of an element, to check the value of an input field, and many other things. Selenium WebDriver provides assertion methods through the org.junit.Assert and org.testng.Assert classes for JUnit and TestNG respectively.

50. What is the Silk Test Tool?

Silk Testing (formerly known as Segue Silk Test) is a commercial, functional, and regression testing tool used for automating the testing of software applications. It is developed and maintained by Micro Focus and it is used for automating GUI-based tests for a variety of applications, including web, mobile, and desktop applications. The tool can be used to test applications on different platforms such as Windows, iOS, and Android. Silk Testing uses a proprietary scripting language called 4Test, which allows users to automate the testing process by writing test scripts that simulate user interactions with the application under test. The tool also has a visual text editor that allows users to record and edit test scripts using a GUI.

51. What is the purpose of the testing.xml file ?

The testing.xml file, also known as testng.xml is an XML configuration file used in the TestNG framework. It is used to configure and execute test suites and test cases. It provides a way to define and organize test methods, classes, and packages into test suites. It also allows setting up test execution order, parallel execution, test data, test listeners, test reporting, and more. With the testing.xml file, users can specify which test methods or classes should be included or excluded in a test run, what test listeners should be used, and what test configuration should be used, among other things. It is used to organize and execute test methods, classes, and packages in a logical and organized way.

52. What are the areas where Selenium can improve its features?

Selenium has a wide range of capabilities, but some areas where it could see the benefit in extending its features include:

  • Mobile testing: Selenium has limited support for mobile testing. It can automate web applications on mobile browsers, but it does not support automating native mobile applications.
  • Visual testing: Selenium is mainly used for functional testing, but it does not have built-in support for visual testing. Visual testing compares the look and feel of the application to a pre-approved design and helps in identifying issues related to layout, alignment, and font.
  • Cross-browser testing: Selenium supports a wide range of browsers, but there are still some browsers that are not fully supported or have limited support.
  • Test reports and analysis: Selenium's test reporting capabilities are basic and it does not provide advanced test analytics features like test coverage, flaky test detection, and root cause analysis.
  • Performance testing: Selenium is mainly used for functional testing, but it does not have built-in support for performance testing. Performance testing can help to measure the responsiveness, stability, and scalability of the application under test.
  • Continuous Integration: Selenium does not provide out-of-the-box support for continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) pipeline, it needs to be integrated with other tools to automate the test execution in CI/CD pipeline.

It's worth noting that Selenium is widely used and has a large community of developers who are constantly working to improve and extend its capabilities. There are also many other test automation tools that can be used in combination with Selenium to address these limitations.

53. Can you explain what Page Factory is?

Page Factory is a design pattern used to create an object repository for web elements in Selenium WebDriver. It's an extension of the Page Object Model design pattern, which is used to create a centralized repository for web elements. It uses annotations to identify and initialize web elements at runtime and make the code more readable and maintainable by separating the test code from the technical details of locating web elements. In order to use Page Factory, you need to create a class for each web page and define web elements in that class using the @FindBy annotation it also contains methods for interacting with the web elements.

54. What is the Actions class?

The Actions class is a part of the Selenium Python bindings for automating web browsers. It allows you to perform actions on web elements, such as moving the mouse over an element, clicking on it, and sending keys to it. The Actions class is typically used in conjunction with the WebDriver class, which is the main class for interacting with a web browser.

55. What are the steps for troubleshooting tests using Selenium IDE?

Troubleshooting tests using Selenium IDE can be a multi-step process, but here are some general steps that you can follow:

  • Verify that the test is correctly recorded: Make sure that the test is recorded correctly and that all the elements and commands are in the correct order.
  • Check the test for syntax errors: Selenium IDE will alert you if there are any syntax errors in the test, so make sure to check for and fix any errors.
  • Check the test for compatibility issues: Make sure that the test is compatible with the browser and version that you are using to run the test.
  • Check the test for missing elements: Make sure that all the elements used in the test are present on the web page.
  • Run the test in debug mode: Selenium IDE provides a debug mode that allows you to step through the test and check the values of variables and the state of the web page at each step.
  • Check the browser's developer tools: The browser's developer tools can be used to inspect the web page and check for any issues.
  • Check the log messages: Selenium IDE provides a log panel where you can view log messages generated by the test. This can be useful for troubleshooting issues.
  • Check the Selenium documentation: The Selenium documentation provides information on the different commands and options available in Selenium IDE, which can be helpful for troubleshooting.
  • Finally, you can also seek help from the Selenium community and forums, where you can ask questions and get help from other Selenium users.

56. What steps can be taken to resolve an issue where a Selenium script only works properly on Google Chrome but not Internet Explorer?

Here are some possible steps that can be taken to resolve an issue where a Selenium script only works properly on Google Chrome but not Internet Explorer:

  1. Verify that the correct version of Internet Explorer is being used: Selenium supports different versions of Internet Explorer, so make sure that you are using a version that is compatible with your Selenium script.
  2. Check the Internet Explorer settings: Make sure that Internet Explorer's security settings are configured correctly and that the browser is not running in compatibility mode.
  3. Check the Selenium WebDriver version: Make sure that you are using the latest version of the Selenium WebDriver for Internet Explorer.
  4. Check the browser's developer tools: Use the browser's developer tools to inspect the web page and check for any issues.
  5. Check the log messages: Selenium provides log messages that can be helpful for troubleshooting issues.
  6. Check the Internet Explorer documentation: The Internet Explorer documentation provides information on the different options and settings available in Internet Explorer, which can be helpful for troubleshooting.
  7. Use a different browser: If the above steps do not resolve the issue, you may want to consider using a different browser that is supported by Selenium, like Firefox or Microsoft Edge.
  8. You can also try to seek help from the Selenium community and forums, where you can ask questions and get help from other Selenium users.

57. Is it possible to open pop-up windows with Selenium?

Yes, it is possible to open pop-up windows with Selenium. Selenium WebDriver provides methods to interact with browser windows, so you can use Selenium to open new windows, switch between windows, and close windows.

You can open a new window using the window_handles method, and switch to the new window using the switch_to.window() method. Once you have switched to the new window, you can interact with the elements on the pop-up window just like you would interact with elements on the main window.

You can also use the Alert class of Selenium WebDriver to handle JavaScript alerts and confirmations.

It's worth noting that, while some browsers may block pop-ups by default, you need to configure the browser settings to allow pop-ups for the testing website.

It's also important to use explicit waits to handle the dynamic nature of the web pages and pop-ups, as the time taken for a pop-up window to load may vary depending on the browser, internet connection, and other factors.

58. Can selenium be used to launch web browsers?

Yes, Selenium provides good support to launch web browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.

The following commands can be used to launch web browsers using Selenium:

  • WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
  • WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

59. Is it possible to use only perform() without build()?

Yes, it is possible to use the perform() method without calling the build() method. The build() method is used to construct and return an instance of the ActionChains class, which is a container for a series of actions. However, if you don't call build(), the actions will be performed immediately when you call perform().


The above line of code is an example of using perform() without calling build(). The move_to_element(), click() methods are chained together and the perform() method is used to execute all the chained actions.

However, it is important to note that, perform() method is used to execute all the chained actions only after calling build() when you are chaining multiple actions together and want to execute them together.

60. What is StaleElementReferenceException? When does this occur? And how to overcome such exceptions?

StaleElementReferenceException is an exception that is thrown in Selenium WebDriver when a web element that was previously found on a web page is no longer available or has been deleted from the DOM (Document Object Model). This can happen if the web page has been refreshed, the element has been removed or replaced, or the element's parent element has been removed or replaced.

This exception occurs when the element is no longer attached to the DOM, which means that the element can no longer be interacted with using the WebDriver.

There are a few ways to overcome this exception:

  • Re-find the element: You can re-find the element by using the WebDriver's find_element or find_elements methods again.
try: StaleElementReferenceException:    element = driver.find_element_by_id('element_id')
  • Wait for the element to be available: You can use explicit waits such as WebDriverWait and ExpectedConditions to wait for the element to be available before interacting with it.
from import expected_conditions as ECfrom import Byfrom import WebDriverWaittry: StaleElementReferenceException:    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 10)    element = wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, 'element_id')))
  • Refresh the page: You can refresh the page using the refresh() method of the WebDriver instance and then re-find the element.
try: StaleElementReferenceException:    driver.refresh()    element = driver.find_element_by_id('element_id')

It is important to note that this exception is a run-time exception, so it's best to catch it and handle it in the code, rather than letting the script crash.

61. In a Selenium script, what happens if you use both implicit and explicit wait?

According to the official Selenium manual, mixing Implicit and Explicit Waits is not recommended. Combining the two can result in unpredictable wait times. Only one time in the code is implicit wait specified. Throughout the driver object instance, it will remain the same. 

Explicit wait is used in the code whenever it is required. At the time of execution, this wait will be called. It's a conditional waiting period. Wherever explicit wait is applied, it will supersede the implicit wait. As a result, Explicit Wait takes precedence over Implicit Wait.

62. In a Selenium Script, what happens if you use both Thread.Sleep and WebDriver Waits?

The Thread.sleep() method allows you to suspend the execution for a specified amount of time in milliseconds. If we use WebDriver waits in conjunction with the Thread.sleep() method, the webdriver will pause the execution for the provided amount of time in the parameter of the Thread.sleep() function before proceeding to the next wait. If we combine both waits, the test execution time will increase.

63. How can I type text into the text box without using the sendKeys() function?

We can use the following piece of code to type text into the text box without using the sendKeys() function:

// To initialize js objectJavascriptExecutor JS = (JavascriptExecutor)webdriver;// To enter usernameJS.executeScript("document.getElementById('User').value=''");// To enter passwordJS.executeScript("document.getElementById('Pass').value='tester value'");

64. How does Selenium WebDriver handle hidden elements?

Using the JavaScript executor, we can deal with hidden items.


65. Code Snippet: Selenium WebDriver in Java

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

public class SeleniumExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Set the path to ChromeDriver executable
        System.setProperty("", "path/to/chromedriver");

        // Create a new instance of the ChromeDriver
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

        // Navigate to a website

        // Perform testing actions...

        // Close the browser

66. Online Resources:

Published On: 2024-01-17